Most are descendants of those repatriated after the fall of the. Swahili: the rise of a national language. Find sources: — · · · · January 2016 Swahili is currently written in an alphabet close to , except it does not use the letters Q and X. The language used to be written in the. Swahili and Sabaki: A Linguistic History. Series: University of California Publications in Linguistics, v.
Nearly half the 81 million Congolese reportedly speak it. However, historical linguists do not consider the Arabic influence on Swahili to be significant enough to classify it as a mixed language, since Arabic influence is limited to lexical items, most of which have only been borrowed after 1500, while the grammatical and syntactic structure of the language is typically Bantu. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Series: Studies in African History. The language was still understood in the southern ports of the in the 20th century.
In Agwuele, Augustine and Bodomo, Adams eds , The Routledge Handbook of African Linguistics, 359-375. Infinitives vary between standard ku- and reduced i-. An extension common to diminutives in many languages is approximation and resemblance having a 'little bit' of some characteristic, like -y or -ish in English. Things with a trajectory, such as mpaka 'border' and mwendo 'journey', are classified with long thin things, as in many other languages with noun classes. Loans may be classified as 9—10 because they lack the prefixes inherent in other classes, and most native class 9—10 nouns have no prefix. Swahili and Sabaki: a linguistic history. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
Not only did that mean that one letter often stands for more than one sound, but also writers made different choices of which consonant to substitute. It was originally written in. Instead, the closest Arabic sound is substituted. Chi-Jomvu and ki-Ngare: Subdialects of the Mombasa Area. The other classes have foundations that may at first seem similarly counterintuitive. Thus they do not form a coherent semantic class, though there are still semantic extensions from individual words.
The text shown here is the version of the. The original letters are preserved in the Historical Archives of Goa,. In non-native Swahili, concord reflects only animacy: human subjects and objects trigger a-, wa- and m-, wa- in verbal concord, while non-human subjects and objects of whatever class trigger i-, zi-. There are also several digraphs for Arabic sounds not distinguished in pronunciation outside of traditional Swahili areas. The Bantu nouns of these classes have been lost; the only permanent member is the Arabic loan mahali 'place s ', but in Mombasa Swahili, the old prefixes survive: pahali 'place', mwahali 'places'.
Local folk-theories of the language have often considered Swahili to be a because of its many loan words from , and the fact that Swahili people have historically been Muslims. Preliminary Studies in Swahili Lexicon — 1. Swahili is also one of the working and officially recognised as a lingua franca of the. Here are some of the equivalents between Arabic Swahili and Roman Swahili: Swahili in Arabic Script Swahili in Latin Alphabet Final Medial Initial Isolated ـا aa ـب ـبـ بـ b p mb mp bw pw mbw mpw ـت ـتـ تـ t nt ـث ـثـ ثـ th? Swahili and closely related languages are spoken by relatively small numbers of people in , , , , , and. There are two for native sounds, ch and sh; c is not used apart from unassimilated English loans and, occasionally, as a substitute for k in advertisements.
The Oxford encyclopedia of African thought, Volume 1. Words may be connected to their class by more than one metaphor. The Swahili: Reconstructing the History and Language of an African Society, 800-1500. Verbs agree with the noun class of their subjects and objects; adjectives, prepositions and demonstratives agree with the noun class of their nouns. Animals exceptional in some way and so not easily fitting in the other classes may be placed in this class. Kitumbatu Pemba dialects occupy the bulk of the island. It is the diminutive sense that has been furthest extended.
Without proper , you may see instead of characters. A significant fraction of Swahili vocabulary derives from , in part conveyed by -speaking Muslim inhabitants. The International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol. They have the same prefixes and concord as class 11, except optionally for adjectival concord. The Zanzibar dialect was chosen as standard Swahili for those areas, and the standard orthography for Swahili was adopted.
However, this is the 'other' class, for words not fitting well elsewhere, and about half of the class 9—10 nouns are foreign loanwords. It is often considered the source of Swahili. Maho includes the various dialects as a third group. There were also differences in orthographic conventions between cities and authors and over the centuries, some quite precise but others different enough to cause difficulties with intelligibility. In Standard Swahili Kiswahili sanifu , based on the dialect spoken in Zanzibar, the system is rather complex; however, it is drastically simplified in many local variants where Swahili is not a native language, such as in Nairobi.