The modern Mediter-ranean includes zones of active subduction associatedwith volcanic activitysuch as the Calabrian arcandolder zones of now quiescent subduction such as theBetic-Rif arc. Volcanic activity in the western Mediterranean over the last 33 Ma 1. Taking each of these mech-anisms in turn we can attempt to ascertain their rela-tive significance. Strom-boli is the most continuously active of the Aeolian Islandvolcanoes. John Lewin is Emeritus Professor of Physical Geography at Aberystwyth University. Fumarolic and diffuse soil emissions on Vulcano Italy pose a health hazard 44015. Thehighest order, axial drainages drain to the south-eastdown the current dip slope Figure 1.
Eastward migration of the topography in conjunction with the eastward rollback of the subduction zone in the Apennines of Italy through time 1. The issue that any volume attempting such a review risks is ofbecoming supercial, however, the two words which immediatelysuggest themselves when reading this volume are authoritive andcomprehensive. Wetlands, among the most threatened habitats in the Mediterranean region 62223. The Betic Corridor is believed tohave closed in the Tortonian leading to a Tortoniansalinity crisis, which predates the better-documentedMessinian Salinity Crisis Krijgsman et al. The Alps and Betics form acontinuous subduction zone in the west. In the Nile region there is also subsurface evidence of the Messinian erosion surface that developed, and its associated drainage patterns. Etna rising above the city of Catania 44915.
John Wainwright is Professor of Physical Geography at the University of Sheffield, andwas previously at Kings College London. His first work on forest fires focused onthe development of methodologies to estimate fire risk, in particular using meteoro-logical indices and measurements of the moisture content of fine fuels. Steep limestone slopes in Kotor Bay on the coast of Montenegro 10. A section of the compiled oxygen isotope record of Figure 4. Historical records of coastal flooding for the Rivers Tiber and Rhône 14. A list of indicative criteria for the identification of earthquakes from archaeological data 47517. The Mediterranean lover can recognise the imperceptible variations that alter the texture of a valley, the hue of a city, and the quite special light of a particular bay.
Bioclimatic life zones of the Mediterranean region 7. Terra Nova 9 4 : 184—7. The land-scapes of the region have a long and complex his-tory that includes both horizontal and vertical crustalmovements and the creation and destruction of oceans Table 1. Hol ocen eLa te P leis toce ne Fig. The last decade has seen the publication of several excellent bookson the history and prehistory of the Mediterranean world and something of a revivalin considering the entire region as a unit of study. The Mediterranean is the only region on Earth where three continents meet and this interaction has produced a very distinctive Physical Geography.
Karst terrain in north-east Majorca showing bare limestone slopes and thick terra rossa soils on the valley floor 30910. The prosperity and depression model of slope stability and soil erosion 11. A large but diffuse transform boundary fault developed across north-east Sicily, connecting with Calabria along the line of the Aeolian Islands Salina, Lipari, and Vulcano and opening the Messinia straits between Sicily and Calabria. A map of some aeolian phenomena and locations in the Mediterranean basin 14. An example of alluvial fans from a faulted mountain front in theTabernas basin of south-east Spain 18 1.
Longitudinal cross-section showing water mass circulation in the Mediterranean Sea during the present-day winter 342. Pure and Applied Geophysics 161: 661—81. St Helens and St Vincent 15. He is also interested in new developments in geodetic instrumentationand analytical tools for the recording and analysis of small-scale oscillatory movements,as well as geodetic techniques used in antiquity. Barber 1981 and has even been credited with facilitating the reflooding of the Mediterranean from the Black Sea Hsü et al. This lowering had serious impacts on Mediterranean hydrography, due to its effect on the hydraulically controlled exchange of watermasses through the Strait of Gibraltar. The Mediterranean is the only region on Earth where three continents meet and this interaction has p.
In the Ebrobadlands of north-east Spain Tertiary clays were foundto erode at 1522 mm a1 Benito et al. His observations of volcanic gas and aerosol emissions have been used to investigate the transport of magma below volcanoes, as well as the impacts of volcanic pollution on the atmospheric environment. A summary of the impact of tectonics on the geomorphology of theMediterranean region 7 1. McDonald Insti-tute Monographs, Cambridge, 54158. Theregion is associated with large earthquakes on reverse Fig. Surface lowering above the 70 ka river capture site depicted in Figure 1.
David Pyle is Professor of Earth Sciences in the Department of Earth Sciences at Oxford University and previously taught at the University of Cambridge 1991—2006. Air pollution emissions in Europe in the year 2000, and emission reductions between 1980 and 2000 60023. Northern Hemisphere palaeogeography and global vegetation maps for selected time slices in the Tertiary 964. Fine-grained sediment outputs from a Mediterranean karst system 30010. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences 6: 527—37. Active volcanoes include Etna, Stromboli and Vulcano, Vesuvius, the Solfatara of Pozzuoli, the Phlegraean Field, and the Island of Ischia Chapter 15.
I The Physical and Biological Framework This page intentionally left blank Editorial Introduction Jamie Woodward By examining both contemporary processes and longterm records of change, this volume explores the climates, landscapes, ecosystems, and hazards that comprise the Mediterranean world. The Quaternary records of these interactions are more varied and better preserved than in any other part of the world. Important tsunamis reported for southern Italy 17. Maps showing: a Mediterranean type climates; b the location of thelargest lakes in the circum-Mediterranean region; c exemplar laketypes; d location of selected key Holocene palaeolimnological sites 256 9. The former refers to variability with periods similar to those of the astronomical cycles of eccentricity, obliquity, and precession.