However, the wide range of dietary prescriptions and exclusions found in Jainism to a greater extent than in any other Indian religion suggest that purity of food, at least, was regarded as being an achievable goal. Were it not for the temple-dwelling monks, S¨ra is portrayed as arguing, then Jainism would have disappeared: There would be a lack of temples today if monks did not live in them. But even this was too late. A slightly earlier legend about the st¨pa given by the tenth-century Digambara Somadeva records how its foundation took place after considerable rivalry with the Buddhists. The Djanggawul sisters of eastern Arnhem Land, for instance, arrive by sea with their conical uteri mats and phallic sacred poles and, following an incestuous relationship with their brother, they travel creating the waterholes containing spirit-essences and bringing out the first children from their wombs. Again, its all-important place of origin might variously be identified by recalling the place where pangs of pregnancy were first felt, or the revelations of a dream, or by associating a foodstuff which itself has a site with the occurrence of the pregnancy. The most useful information on Oceanian religion from the early nineteenth century comes from long-term administrators or residents, missionaries and explorers who had encountered more fully the indigenous people of an area.
What, this appears to ask, gives one legitimate associations with a place? This is the first book to bring together up-to-date information on this great variety of traditional religious beliefs and practices, which have been profoundly influential on the theories and understandings of religion in general. Aboriginal cosmologies are never systematized into some grand doctrine but are instead always implicit within a multitude of stories. While the reference to expectations of the Allied American saviours was no doubt considered quaint and hence, for the most part, left little historical trace in colonial history, the longing for the Japanese was clearly more distasteful to the military mind. No matter how innovative those cults may have been, they still remained firmly embedded in distinctly Aboriginal ceremonial forms; so much so that many ethnographers failed to appreciate the dynamic nature of the rituals they observed. The soul which has attained this state is totally unconditioned: It is not long nor small nor round nor triangular nor quadrangular nor circular; it is not black nor blue nor red nor green nor white; neither of good nor bad smell; not bitter nor pungent nor astringent nor sweet; neither rough nor soft; neither heavy nor light; neither cold nor hot; neither harsh nor smooth. A common narrative theme in Jain literature relates to the monk who refuses to tell a hunter the whereabouts of an animal being pursued and as a consequence endures torture in silence rather than reveal the truth.
The process of giving involves an etiquette to which both ascetic and lay person must conform. Such cosmic instability, one might suggest, seems almost to herald the collapse of the world-order, and it is thus not surprising to discover that, while it has been an anthropological truism that Aborigines do not entertain eschatological ideas, in the south-east there was indeed a threat of a world-end. It consists of: The supreme abode: This is located at the top of the universe and is where Siddha, the liberated souls, live. Given the ambiguity of the evidence, and the high passions involved in the subject, it is not surprising that overall evaluations of missions in Australia have been heavily divided. In other words, all this potential to act is already present, waiting to be used. The role of the acarya -- 7.
Here, perhaps, can be glimpsed a clue to the resilience of Jainism in India for two and a half millennia, namely the construction within a huge corpus of exemplary stories of a narrative universe that mirrored the complexity of human experience and provided multifarious models of and for being a Jain. If for some reason no Jain comes to the temple, they carry out the p¨jå themselves. In the Roper River region the Mother is Kadjeri, and at the places where she stops to camp she brings forth children from her womb. If we had taken both ways and thought of them separately, we would have become confused. To put the matter summarily, the making of young men seems to strip boys of their self-developed status since their actual birth, and to give them a new birth which is regulated and symbolically realized in secret by men.
What is most significant in such cases is that despite the fact that the movement is perpetuated entirely by Aborigines, the worldview being promoted is derived from Western Christendom. We might anticipate however, that this would cause more serious consideration if the myths in question suggested some contradiction. The first was widely reported but rarely understood. Always born into a family of the warrior class, they are generally awakened by the gods in Jainism, beings who are subject like humans to the laws of rebirth but who cannot attain enlightenment in their divine state to their destinies as great spiritual teachers and then renounce the world of the householder to become wandering mendicants. You see that fire a long way off in the country Yoormanga? Even such a basic question as when he lived is not certain.
While the concept of oneness, expressed as universal love, is quite evident as a cosmological and social principle, it was equally, if not more, intrusive upon Aboriginal domains as an economic ideal. In that he is invariably drunk, he is associated with Catholic rather than Protestant missionaries. Radcliffe-Brown, have asked if the term has any true substance. Bands usually camped and rarely settled permanently in the same location, although there were seasonal and ceremonial places where they came together for feasts, exchanges and rite. Even less well known, except to a few specialists, is the extensive Jain contribution to Old Gujarati and Old Hindi literature.
In 1777 he was the first European to comment on the Polynesian term mana, to which we will refer again shortly. Likewise, the issue of who made the Ancestors or world is not addressed. Here, then, is again that tension between principles of existence that was noted in our discussion of conception, the respective religiosity of men and women and the making of young men. Their territories had been invaded by pastoralists in the 1870s, and in response they had killed cattle and settlers alike. Considering that Aboriginal religious life is inseparable from land and social life, it is unthinkable that such titanic disruptions would not have radically changed their traditions. There, in 1942, it was reported that Aborigines believed the Japanese were coming to liberate them. The emergence of Shvetambara gacchas.
Spencer and Gillen briefly describe the Intichiuma of the unjiamba, or Hakea flower, as follows: At a place called Ilyaba the ceremony is performed by men of the Bulthara and Panunga classes, and the exact spot at which it takes place is a shallow, oval-shaped pit, by the side of which grows an ancient Hakea tree. You keep your spears but give me back those guns you have been using. It is perhaps worth tracing this intriguing syncretistic myth. For the Jain version of his life, see UttS 9 and compare Alsdorf 1974: 215—24. Today, a rather similar symbolic interpretation of the offerings can be found in the accounts of p¨jå written by ascetics for lay people, according to which they represent either the attainment of positive spiritual goals or the elimination of negative ones, and some variation of this is generally repeated in scholarly analyses of the meaning of Jain worship. In such contexts, religious authority would of necessity be removed from their sites, while the emphasis on the future was the promise or threat of a cosmos which had lost its enduring balance.
However, it is doubtful whether the Teråpanth would have long survived the death of its founder, had it not been for the provision which he made to ensure the organisation and continuity of the sect. When this has been done, the men sit around the stone and a considerable time is spent in singing chants, the burden of which is a reiterated invitation to the Unjiamba tree to flower much, and to the blossoms to be full of honey. It is possibly true that the Timorese were in association with Kimberley Aborigines for some time, and among other things helped inspire the Wandjina beliefs and iconography of that region. In my moments of spiritual crisis, therefore, he was my refuge. It would be impertinent to pretend that any religious tradition can be encompassed in the short space available here.