Per capita consumption of hard liquor peaked at about the same time, and beer consumption a little later. By keeping the distribution network within a medical framework, it would place a check on the social legitimization of cocaine. Moreover, the costs to society are continuing to mount from past neglect of this continuing public health problem. Inciardi -- Marijuana legalization debate : is there a middle ground? The most obvious case is regulating access to drugs by adolescents and young adults. The determination of a fair rate of taxation would rely on Grinspoon's concept of a harmfulness tax Grinspoon, 1988 , as well as historical experience with alcohol, tobacco, coffee, and tea. What about the International Repercussions? The difficulty is determining the meaning of such residuals.
Nova Law Review, 11 3 : 1027. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 17 4 : 267-277. Each experiment comparing the effectiveness of the various treatments was replicated in a community-based clinic and in a major medical research center. Open communication with the family physician is a good idea, and would be far more likely to occur if the paranoia induced by drug prohibition was removed. Though the rates of use have leveled off recently, adolescents in the U. It would presumably also diminish the damage caused by the absence of quality controls on illicit drugs and slow the spread of infectious diseases due to needle sharing and other unhygienic practices. Furthermore, governments could abandon the costly and largely futile effort to suppress the supply of illicit drugs and jail drug offenders, spending the money thus saved to educate people not to take drugs and treat those who become addicted.
There is a long history of use of coca and coca-containing beverages without concurrent social problems. While there is no resolution to the constitutional issue raised by testing, and while there is currently no way to correlate traces of cannabinoids with impairment, there is a partial solution to the problem. It is fair to say that the habit-forming potential of coca is similar to that of coffee and tea Brecher, 1972. Placed within a medical framework, this has not resulted in a general social -recreational legitimization of either that drug or other, related narcotics, such as heroin Brecher, 1972. American Journal of Psychiatry, 135 3 : 309-314.
Schemes that risk a continuing black market require more questions—about the new black markets operation over time, whether it is likely to be more benign than existing ones, and more broadly whether the trade-off with other benefits still makes the effort worthwhile. Production One of the benefits of legalization would be the opportunity to legitimize commerce in the raw materials and drug products of the current drug-producing countries, whether in South America, Southeast Asia, or elsewhere. In any case, the risk of higher drug consumption might be acceptable if legalization could reduce dramatically if not remove entirely the crime associated with the black market for illicit drugs while also making some forms of drug use safer. Most psychotropic drugs, then, would be made available to anyone who wants them, with certain restrictions, as noted above. Conversely, the lower cost of labor in the major producing countries might dictate a heavy reliance on imports.
Drugs, society and human behavior. He participated in the implementation of federal drug abuse demand reduction programs from 1957 through 1980. But if this is indeed the likely conclusion of any study, what is there to fear aside from criticism that relatively small amounts of taxpayer money had been wasted in demonstrating what everyone had believed at the outset? Chapters confront topics such as the decriminalization of marijuana, the risk of the war on drugs, an enlightened legalization policy, and discussion of the ethical and legal dilemmas at stake. Beyond testing: Coping with drugs at work. Hence, the faster the increase, the greater the euphoria. More recently, the pattern has been repeated in countries such as Iran and Pakistan, where pressure to limit the availability of opium has resulted in an explosion of heroin use, which was previously far less prevalent White, 1985.
Public opinion polls showing that most Americans would not rush off to try hitherto forbidden drugs that suddenly became available are likewise used to buttress the pro-legalization case. Taking all of the information together, the final section summarizes the implications for policy makers and presents our recommendations. The adolescents treated had an average age of 16, were most likely to be male 83% , white 61% , enrolled in school 87% , and involved in the juvenile justice system 62%. As will become clear, drug legalization is not a public policy option that lends itself to simplistic or superficial debate. To support their claim, they point to the prevalence of opium, heroin, and cocaine addiction in various countries before international controls took effect, the rise in alcohol consumption after the Volstead Act was repealed in the United States, and studies showing higher rates of abuse among medical professionals with greater access to prescription drugs. Relaxing the availability of psychoactive substances not already commercially available, opponents typically argue, would lead to an immediate and substantial rise in consumption. She is project director of a study examining trends and correlates in substance use in a adolescent population.
Marijuana would be sold as a regulated commodity, combining some of the regulatory constraints now applied to the marketing and distribution of both tobacco and alcohol, as well as additional restrictions on advertising. Inciardi -- Legalizing drugs : would it really reduce violent crime? Cannabis, The Wonder Drug - Lester Grinspoon Thinking About the Drug Policy Debate - Erich Goode Why the Drug War Will Never End - Steven Jonas War Is Still Not the Answer - Karst K Besteman Commonsense Drug Policy - Ethan A Nadelmann. The use of amphetamines to temporarily enhance alertness has been a common practice in the U. None of this should deter further analysis of drug legalization. The historical evidence is ambiguous at best, even assuming that the experience of one era is relevant to another. Why coca leaf should be available as a recreational drug.
Efforts to employ such labels on alcoholic beverages recently came to fruition. As with most if not all privately and publicly provided goods, the key regulatory questions concern the nature of the legally available drugs, the terms of their supply, and the terms of their consumption see page 21. Here too a long set of questions remains to be addressed. All drug testing is intrusive, and the most effective testing related to current impairment, through blood sampling, is most intrusive. All treatments were manual-guided to enhance fidelity to the treatments being tested across the study sites. The harm that drugs cause to users and society is the typical rationale for the regulation of illicit drugs and the punishment of drug offenders.
The advantage of a combination of random psychomotor testing and interlocks would be that all forms of impairment, including those caused by illness and neurological or psychiatric abnormalities, would be detected. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41: 903-909. The implications of this criticism are significant and suggest that caution must be exercised in making far-ranging policy decisions prior to accumulation of ample, replicable data Morgan, 1987. It would do away with the necessity for subterfuge on the part of both physician and patient, and put the patient into a context where he could openly discuss with his physician the effects of specific drugs and how negative consequences of use might be mitigated. Public consumption should generally be prohibited, and violation of this prohibition should be punishable by a fine similar to a parking ticket.