They may have received no formal training in public relations. Ignorance Inevitably, sometimes people are ignorant about a subject. Introduction Although the consultancy seems to be the most glamorous side of public relations, a minority of public relations personnel actually work in consultancy practices. This chapter outlines how public relations can support the marketing function. There is a full range of special exhibitions and a broad public programme of events throughout the year.
Edward Bernays, considered to be the father of modern public relations and a nephew of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, argues that the rulers of ancient Egypt, Sumeria, Babylonia, Assyria and Persia all used personal and political publicity 1952, p. The simple logic here is that if the public relations programme has clearly defined and measurable objectives, it is then possible to assess the results. Ford and Firestone tyres on the Explorer — see Chapter 26. Equally, they may be involved in generating publicity for a new car product launch. The in-house team may be of varying size and, thus, smaller departments may supplement their team with a retained consultancy to perform certain functions. Two people may perceive the exact same message differently. Inexperienced or overzealous brand or product managers could organize schemes that fail to ensure an adequate supply of prizes, or those that it supplies might not be delivered sufficiently quickly to meet the huge demand for the offer.
The campaign plan requires diligent attention to the planning of the workload in terms of hours and use of materials, resources and expenses. D-Day planning chart For a separate job or event, such as a press reception, where the preparation may be spread over three months or more, a D-Day planning timetable can be plotted, working back from the event to the first action. This can only breed scepticism about the value of public relations. Source: Jefkins 1994 Introduction Growth Maturity Figure 3. The best way to avoid such conflicts is for the contract to be based on a fully budgeted, detailed proposal set out in full at the start of the partnership, documenting jobs, workloads, hours, fees and costs. People have different personalities, which in turn affects the formation of their attitudes, opinions and values.
This largely depends on whether or not the firm has new products or services to replace lost revenue in the pipeline. Good client relations depend on trust and frankness, not bullying and subservience. For example, in the European airline industry, the trend has been towards decreasing ticket prices for short-haul travel and increasing competition as airline alliances develop. The job specification would be made available to any prospective applicant who requested it and would also be made available on the website. Thanks particularly to those reviewers who made specific recommendations on material to be included to improve the text. Either way, it will require a careful estimate of the workload time , materials and expenses. A number of quotations have been taken from the press and other publications, and these have been acknowledged in the references at the end of the book.
The Times of India, but also others in Indian languages. Can we convert prejudice into acceptance? It may be argued that public relations departments have to deal with the unpredictable see Chapter 26 on crisis management. This should not be confused with corporate identity, although the terms are sometimes used interchangeably. This is because the researchers may interpret the results differently from the practitioner. Thus, management skills become fundamental.
In advertising, if weak arguments are presented, the measured attitude towards the advert declines towards unfavourability. In this case, although there were numerous reasons for the release of noxious substances in the air, Union Carbide were seen to be partly to blame for not implementing adequate safety procedures, as was the Indian government for allowing the development of slums around the factory. These targets are fewer and relate to such groups as are defined by social typologies, age or income bands, or other segments of the market. If this report is submitted quickly, any disagreements can be settled and the report can be revised. He is an international authority in the field of political marketing and Managing Editor, Europe, for the Journal of Political Marketing. The hostility may be irrational, based on fear, misunderstanding or false information. It creates trust, confidence and reputation, which are major objectives of public relations.
Such a process may occupy 18 months to two years work, depending on the complexity of the product or service, before advertising starts. It may be that he or she honestly feels enthusiasm about the organization and what it makes or does. Modern public relations calls for people with a holistic view of business, who can act as advisers to management on a great variety of issues. Their service could be ideal when short-term service is required. Critical path analysis The overall plan or important subsections of it may be represented by a critical path analysis chart. A typical example is a press office facility designed to deal with enquiries whose nature cannot be known in advance. They have more curiosity value than a piece of print that can be glanced at quickly.
In a special preview session, 20 000 black-cab drivers in London were invited to a preview especially for them. The placement of product in some media may be restricted by regulation. To succeed, both advertising and propaganda attempt to create positive associations amongst their audiences with their messages. Some consultants may be known to the organization. What is the quality of coverage? If a video is proposed, various people will have to give up their time for the shooting, and if a technical seminar or even a press reception is planned it will involve company speakers and spokespeople. However, press cuttings are best evaluated by their quality and effect rather than their volume. In creating a company name today, it is necessary to consider what the name communicates to its publics, particularly if these publics may include overseas markets.
A good example of an event promoted through word of mouth is the annual Virgin music festival aimed principally at teenagers and people in their early twenties. It may, however, also use a consultancy either to augment its busy department, or to handle specialized or ad hoc public relations work. Taped radio interviews, studio interviews, phone-ins, news iv. The communications audit may be performed internally or by outside consultants who can offer professional and independent advice. Seminars and conferences, spoken brochures, catalogues word sometimes combined with video shows, slide presentations and exhibits ix. Thus, broadcast news is more likely to be trusted than its press counterpart.