The reduction in formal presidential powers in 1997 did not reduce the capacity of the president to influence the polity. Using both quantitative and qualitative empirical evidence from democratic systems across the world, this book demonstrates that compared to indirect selection methods, direct elections do not yield more active and contentious presidents, do not polarize political elites or society, and do not remedy political apathy. The paper sets out the working concept of semi-presidentialism first and, through the lenses of process tracing, analyses the goals and acts of Zeman after he entered office in January 2013. Explaining presidential activism -- The activism of indirectly and directly elected presidents -- To elect or to select? Despite the importance of this topic in practical politics, political scientists have offered little empirical evidence yet made bold assumptions about the consequences of popular elections for heads of state. Our analyses suggest that scholars can benefit from paying more attention to both coalition governments and legislatures in their analyses of African politics. Last, but not least, rather than decreasing apathy, direct election is associated with increased voter fatigue and decreased turnout in parliamentary elections by about seven percentage points.
The competition for global capital has led to interjurisdictional competition between countries, states and cities as to who can offer the most attractive incentives to firms. This chapter summarises the key findings of the book and discusses their implications for the study of presidents and presidential activism across regime types. To many they appeared to form a transatlantic partnership, but they were not the first. Coupled with what his supporters perceive as a disengagement from public life, this might bring into question the interest of the president in pursuing a second mandate. To Elect or To Select? Another popular assumption is that direct presidential elections are more heavily contested and partisan, polarizing and dividing political elites and the electorate. It allows insightful comparisons between the political thought and systems of two nations and shows how strong, determined leadership can dramatically shape the political development of Western democracies. The literature offers plenty of examples of such behaviour, with presidents employing this strategy to compensate for their limited constitutional powers Leuffen 2009;Sedelius 2006: 223-5; Tavits 2009.
The literature review is structured by the notion of presidency- and president-centred approaches, which focus on institutions and exogenous influences and individual-level determinants of presidential activism, respectively. Termination is one of the most important moments in the government life cycle. Last, but not least, rather than decreasing apathy, direct election is associated with increased voter fatigue and decreased turnout in parliamentary elections by about seven percentage points. Sie identifiziert die Faktoren, die zu seinem Aufstieg beitragen und warnt eindringlich vor den Folgen. Instead, attention is directed at more fundamental developments in Austria's political culture, voting behaviour and political agenda, which together will have a greater influence on Austria's future than will Waldheim's past. The student-friendly design incorporates more visuals and sidebars, as well as chapter objectives and a glossary, in order to make the material easily digestible. Proponents of direct elections argue that such elections will help decrease voter alienation and apathy.
Presidents, Prime Ministers and Chancellors addresses these questions by looking at the leadership performance of more than two dozen American presidents, British prime ministers and German chancellors of the post-1945 period. However, despite the fact that the text of the constitution, regarding the presidency, has not been changed since 1944, the political importance of the president has increased in recent years. It explores how the coexistence of popularly elected presidents and prime ministers is shaped by constitutional provisions, parliamentary fragmentation, and party system characteristics. Due to the results of the statistical models, the case studies focussed on presidential vetoes and the degree to which the factors included in my statistical models could explain instances or the lack of the use of vetoes. Indirectly elected presidents on the other hand acknowledged their dependence on parliament and therefore used their powers less often as not to interfere in the work of their principal. However, in 2012, the previous scholarly consensus concerning the classification of the Czech Republic dissolved, and 'post-Duvergerian' scholars now regard the Czech regime as semi-presidential. As could be expected, president Kwaśwnieski used his formal powers only infrequently.
Using both quantitative and qualitative empirical evidence from democratic systems across the world, this book demonstrates that compared to indirect selection methods, direct elections do not yield more active and contentious presidents, do not polarize political elites or society, and do not remedy political apathy. Doch das Dahinsiechen einer Demokratie, das Sterben mit einem Wimmern, ist alltäglicher — und gefährlicher, weil die Bürger meist erst aufwachen, wenn es zu spät ist. Shugart provide a theoretical framework for analyzing variation in the relationships among presidents, parties, and prime ministers across the world's democracies, revealing the important ways that the separation of powers alters party organization and behavior - thereby changing the nature of democratic representation and accountability. Pragmatism: Policy Shifts and Political Competition. The article applies this new concept to the Czech regime for the period since the first directly elected president, Miloš Zeman, took office. Patterns of presidential activism In order to analyse my data on presidential activism, I used both negative binomial and event history regression models.
His priorities appear locked in preserving the status quo in the justice system, and does not appear willing to set other directions to the public agenda and use his own electoral legitimacy to get people to think about new issues or believe in particular actions. Only in nomination methods is the United States the trendsetter, as primary elections only recently have been adopted in other countries, mainly in Latin America. It aims to isolate the independent impact of semipresidentialism on democratic performance. Using both quantitative and qualitative empirical evidence from democratic systems across the world, this book demonstrates that compared to indirect selection methods, direct elections do not yield more active and contentious presidents, do not polarize political elites or society, and do not remedy political apathy. However, the prime minister position went to Ivica Dacic, the leader of the Socialist Party. On the other hand there has not been any particular trend in the strength of short-term forces during this period; instead events peculiar to the context of a specific election generate short-term forces at the level of the presidential election, but the degree to which these forces are carried over to local races seems to have declined. Although covering historical and contemporary barriers to women's leadership and issues of gender bias and discrimination, this two-volume set focuses as well on positive aspects and opportunities for leadership in various domains and is centered on the 101 most important topics, issues, questions, and debates specific to women and gender.
Denn mit gezielter Gegenwehr lässt sich die Demokratie retten — auch vom Sterbebett. Further, because holding the presidency provides parties with an electoral asset, direct and indirect presidential elections can be equally contentious and polarizing. It is clear that research design, case selection, and the quality of data matters greatly in arriving at meaningful and reliable conclusions. The recent appearance of such regimes in newly democratizing states points to the fact that this form of government is often the preferred solution in times of transition. Many such countries have democratized successfully, but only despite the institutional crises caused by this particular form of semipresidentialism. This study analysis the trend and issues of intra-executive conflicts in eight semi-presidential premier-presidential and president-parliamentary countries in Central and Eastern Europe: Bulgaria, Croatia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, and Ukraine.
It begins by identifying all of the studies that have estimated the effect of a presidential power variable, clarifying what scholars have attempted to capture when they have operationalized the concept of presidential power. What determines partisan portfolio allocation in African democracies? Entries provide students with more detailed information and depth of discussion than typically found in an encyclopedia entry, but lack the jargon, detail, and density of a journal article. Presidents, Prime Ministers and Chancellors addresses these questions by looking at the leadership performance of more than two dozen American presidents, British prime ministers and German chancellors of the post-1945 period. Despite the vast literature on government formation in Europe and Latin America, there have been no studies of partisan portfolio allocation in Africa. They nominate candidates, coordinate campaigns, aggregate interests, formulate and implement policy, and manage government power. Using an original dataset of coalition governments in Africa from 1990 to 2014, we show that existing theories of partisan portfolio allocation can be successfully applied to African democracies. Eight hypotheses on the effect of constitutional factors and variables related to the political environment are formulated to form the basis for statistical analysis and qualitative case studies.
It analyzes whether the formal distribution of appointment-dismissal powers allows for the development of useful indicators for predicting a prime minister's location on the continuum between the ideal points of the president and the legislature. Author: Margit Tavits; Oxford University Press Publisher: Oxford ; New York : Oxford University Press, 2009. Ezrow, Lawrence, Jonathan Homola, and Margit Tavits. Semi-presidentialism has become an increasingly popular form of government worldwide and has emerged as the most common regime type in Central and Eastern Europe and among the post-Soviet states. He is reactive in his e. Furthermore, presidential institutions, executive-legislative relations and inner-executive relationships between president and government are important topics in most countries' constitutional discourses. Both promised to provide strong leadership, establish new priorities, and restore fundamental principles to national politics.