This is, of course, beyond the scope of the present study, but it might be possible to establish, for example, that the more egyptianizing pieces, like metal bowls from the Etruscan tombs, are indeed later than some of the Phoenician bowls from Nimrud, which show more crowded figures and occasional motifs similar to North Syrian work. Narrative Composition in Assyrian Sculpture. It is in this context that we understand better the function of the historical narratives of the Throneroom. Art, Ancient — Middle East. In the context of the Fribourg colloquium's inquiry into images as purveyors of meaning in the mass media of the first millennium b. Remarques sur l'administration de l'Empire Assyrien.
To a significant extent, the seals, no less than offspring, serve as living extensions of the self. Unfortunately, given the poor state of preservation of the actual fragments of painting, it is impossible to reconstruct what role they might have played in the total scheme of the Throneroom. Frankfort, Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient Baltimore, 1958 , fig. In this, I have found useful the recent work of anthropologists Mary Helms, 5 Arjun Appadurai, 6 Liz Brumfiel, 7 and Cathy Costin. Indeed, for the Moghul period, such a singularity of function and association, if not identity, is clearly ascribed.
Several scholars have dealt with the particular nature of the art of this period Groenewegen-Frankfort 1951; Frankfort 1954; Moortgat 1969; Akurgal 1968; Reade 1965, 1979a, b, c , and a symposium held at the University of Chicago in 1956 attempted to explore narration in ancient art specifically. Hymes has posed the issue in terms of situations in which there exist a diversity of languages within the community and the necessity of arriving at social codes and communication systems that are mutually intelligible, if not a shared language 1967 ; and it is interesting that precisely within the Neo-Asssyrian Empire in the eighth century — dur- ing the reign of Tiglath-pileser, apparently — there is a shift to the use of Aramaic rather than the native Akkadian as a lingua franca, certainly at least partially in response to the incorporation of much western Semitic territory into the Empire at that time. What most of these critics have advocated is the disaggregation of various conflated moments in the analytical phases articulated by Panofsky. On this elusive personage, see Fales 1988, who provides a concordance of the attestations of this name. A programmatic study of the decorative scheme of the Palace of Sennacherib is badly needed; and now that Reade has accomplished the herculean task of correlating the published plates of reliefs with individual rooms 1979c:86-90 , this task may be undertaken. The use of these same figures flanking frames on the seals at once emphasizes and identifies the protected architectural space within which the depicted act of devotion is set, and further suggests that the free-standing griffin-demons on the Morgan Library seal who merely flank the core motif were also intended to signify the sanctified standing behind the ruler, however, echoing the composition of the Residence K painting at Khorsabad. Thus we see that ivories in North Syrian style fig.
As the representative of a cultural institution, the king is not only the subject but also the composer of the message. Ancient Records of Assyria and Babylonia, Vol. On the earliest Herald's Wall at Carchemish, series of mythologi- cal themes are displayed, one to a slab, all comprised of culminating scenes or simple emblems and with no apparent relation to each other Orthmann 1971: Pis. Modes of Communication and the Acquisition of Symbolic Com- petence. Due to this overlap, it cannot be said that a given motif was chronologically distinct or successive to another; nor can it be demonstrated at present that one or another motif was utilized exclusively by individuals who held particular offices such as that of limmu, for example.
Dunand, Til Barsib, Paris, 1936, Pis. Originally published as Le cru et le cuit. We have mentioned before that these details grant particularity to each sequence. Art and Architecture of the Ancient Orient. There are even cases in which all of the figures face in the same direction, denying symmetry altogether. La facade de la salle du trone au Palais Nord-Oest a Nimrud. Chicago: National Society for the Study of Education.
Therefore, just on the basis of this one king, successor to Assurnasirpal, we may tentatively predict a general trend of elaboration in the genre of historical narrative at the expense of other themes. Texts speak eloquently to the property of light and shine as a positive element of works produced. Of those Central Palace reliefs still in situ, it has been possible to reconstruct representations of two campaigns, one against Babylon in 745 B. For this reason, it would seem essential not to let the modern ethos of the elision of scale via photographic reproduction, as signaled so aptly by Malraux, obscure the discrete, if overlapping, socio-political domains in which seals and large sculptural monuments functioned in the ancient Near East. I have tried to deal elsewhere with the way in which the periphery processed stimuli from the center in the Neo-Assyrian period Winter 1977 , and the way in which the center borrowed from the periphery for its own ends Winter, forthcoming. It is unfortunate in this regard that the north wall is not intact so that the two might be compared.
The opposition between east and west can be found clearly expressed in Neo-Assyrian texts of the period as a chosen metaphor for the extent of the Empire — for example, in an inscription of Shamshi-Adad V 823-811 B. For example, at least three different stamp seals bear- ing the same motif occur on a single clay jar-sealing of the reign of Esarhaddon 680-669 b. We therefore come back to the importance of the receivability of signals, since we have already established the intention to transmit such signals. In relation to slab 17a fig. In a cursory survey, it would certainly seem that there is a good deal of correspondence: e. This we know from the extensive inscription on both obverse and reverse. Dawkins, The Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia London, 1929 Pis.
For the rest, sequences of approach, conflict, and consequence seem to be distributed over both top and bottom registers. As a class, the works bearing inscriptions range in size from small cylinder seals, held in the hand and impressed upon clay tablets, bullae, and door and jar sealings, to large-scale, independent monuments and architecture. The field sequences simply show Assyrian chariotry or cavalry against enemy chariots slabs 5a— 4a, fig. The Art of Ancient Mesopotamia. It is also likely that Doria himself served as the model for both Neptune and Zeus in the two battles. Indeed, we know that in the mid-seventh century B.
No library should be without this impressive collection. At the time Barnett published his study, he felt that the two groups from Nimrud could also be distinguished by usage, as the Phoenician group was comprised mainly of parts of furniture, while the Syrian group was made up of small cosmetic items, like pyxides, handbowls, ; J. I would even go further and suggest that, just as we have posited exact correspondences between verbally and visually described events in the historical narratives, there is an equal correspondence between the epithets assumed by the king and his various categories of representation. Visual rhythms that aid the reading of the narrative are established not only across a single register, but from register to register, as in the case of his battle against the Arabs, where camels racing from right to left are shown at the far right in the upper register, progressively toward the middle in the second, and finally at the bottom left, so that one takes in the movement of all three registers at once fig. The reduced dyad has thus been read, more implicitly than explicitly, as a necessary abbreviation given the limited space on the surface of the stamp seal itself; and the conflation of hunt and combat permits the two to be seen as equal alternatives within the long history of association of the Mesopotamian ruler with dominance over this most powerful of beasts Cassin 1987a. These examples that do exist hint at the possibility that there may well be a personal element in the choice of deity and expression of devotion manifest in this group of seals, just as the per- sonal element is likely indicted by the beardless devotee on the seals of eunuchs.