Lowe over the past 20 years, More Kinds of Being:A Further Study of Individuation, Identity, and the Logic of Sortal Terms presents a thorough reworking and expansion of the 1989 edition of Kinds of Being. Whereas in Kinds of Being Lowe was primarily interested in the distinction between particular objects and the kinds that they instantiate, in More Kinds of Being two further categories of being are included, namely attributes which characterize kinds and modes or tropes, as they are often called. More specifically, he argues that something is golden only if it consists of gold, that something consists of gold only if it is composed of smaller bits of gold , and hence, that something is golden only if it is composed of smaller bits of gold. Lowe covers all the major aspects of his philosophy. An opponent might reply as follows: It is exactly because the criteria of identity for persons require both a grasp of the identity-conditions of physiological states and the identity-conditions of psychological states that persons appear to be unanalysable. Consonant with the aforementioned defense, he argues that 'person' is a semantically simple sortal term, and for that reason, is unanalyzable. In the interim, Lowe developed a four-category ontology inspired by Aristotle's Categories.
Chapter 10 explores the related topics of plural quantification and sortal reference. Lowe makes a strong case for the claim that persons are not to be identified with their bodies, as he has argued elsewhere e. This warrants an investigation into the methodological aspects of Aristotle's metaphysics. Philosophers who neglect this sort of constraint on composition principles may be said to be victims of the 'cinematographic fallacy'. Rather, this inability is a function of there not being a determinate maximal number of such things. This paper presents and motivates an extended ontology knowledge model which represents semantic information about concepts explicitly. In addition, Witt challenges the orthodox view that Aristotelian essences are species-essences, defending instead the controversial position that they are individual essences.
Lowe, More Kinds of Being: A Further Study of Individuation, Identity, and the Logic of Sortal Terms, Wiley-Blackwell, 2009, 227pp. This article shows that there are credible conditional logics which do not sanction this test, thereby providing an escape route for proponents of causal necessitarianism from Mumford and Anjum's argument. Brings many of the original ideas and arguments put forth in Kinds of Being thoroughly up to date in light of new developments Features a thorough reworking and expansion of the earlier work, rather than just a new edition Reflects the author's conversion to what he calls 'the four-category ontology, ' a metaphysical system that takes its inspiration from Aristotle Provides a unified discussion of individuation and identity that should prove to be essential reading for philosophers working in metaphysics. Lowe explores all of this in his own easy-going delightful style. But Lewis muddies the waters by giving a confused and ultimately untenable definition of endurance.
According to the theory of truth-making this intuition implies that either every truth or at least every truth of a certain class of truths has a so-called truth-maker, an entity whose existence accounts for truth. Lowe over the past 20 years, More Kinds of Being: A Further Study of Individuation, Identity, and the Logic of Sortal Terms presents a thorough reworking and expansion of the 1989 edition of Kinds of Being. Using a problem-centred approach designed to stimulate as well as instruct, he begins with a general examination of the mind-body problem and moves on to detailed examination of more specific philosophical issues concerning sensation, perception, thought and language, rationality, artificial intelligence, action, personal identity and self-knowledge. Like analytic philosopher , Lowe argues that the denial of universals has ontologically strange consequences. Such an alternative solution can be supported by arguing that, unlike Tib, any genuine part of Tibbles, e. This second expanded edition adds three new chapters as well as revised content and updated references.
One of the tasks that I will undertake in this paper is to develop this modal interpretation, partly building on my previous work on the metaphysical interpretation of the law of non-contradiction Tahko 2009. She takes her time, consults travel books and brochures, contemplates her bank account, and eventually comes to the conclusion that all things considered, Hawaii is the best option. Lowe is opposed to the notion of , the idea that everything that happens in the world is caused by physical objects in the world. Chapter 12 completes the study by addressing questions about the syntax and semantics of complex sortal terms and the identity criteria of sorts or kinds. More Kinds of Beingis a remarkable book.
More Kinds of Being is densely and masterfully argued, written with great clarity, and makes a number of important original contributions to the field. For example, there are certain constraints as to what kind of properties an object can have, and especially: some of these properties are mutually exclusive. He shows that it provides a powerful explanatory framework for a unified account of causation,. His first step is to cover both perduring and enduring by offering the neutral word persist. Lowe over the past 20 years, More Kinds of Being:A Further Study of Individuation, Identity, and the Logic of Sortal Terms presents a thorough reworking and expansion of the 1989 edition of Kinds of Being. According to Lowe, the generation of a person must take time because the generation of a person necessarily involves learning processes that take significant periods of time.
Although Lowe accepts the Lockean thesis that persons must be capable of action, perception, and reflective thought, he argues that no necessary condition of personhood of this sort can be used to formulate an adequate analysis of personhood. Chapter 7: Parts and Wholes Tibbles the cat minus her tail is known as Tib. Miller outlining central parts of Lowe's philosophy, especially his metaphysics, ontology, and philosophy of mind. Finally, Witt compares Aristotelian essentialism to contemporary essentialist theories, focusing in particular on Saul Kripke's work. But evolutionary theory in biology entails that the color of exemplars of the universal raven-kind is a relatively incidental and superficial characteristic of such creatures that is subject to change due to mutation and natural selection. Chapter 8 deals with the nature and identity of lumps of matter, living organisms, and persons.
Subsequent chapters introduce and critically assess topics fundamental to understanding Locke: his theories of substance and identity, language and meaning, philosophy of action and free will, and political freedom and toleration. Find the original review here:. Chapter 5 defends the absoluteness of identity. Within the thought of Plato and Aristotle, the reader will find in-depth introductions to major works, such as the Republic and the Nicomachean Ethics, which are treated in detail that is unusual in an introduction to ancient philosophy. Lowe 1950-2014 was Professor of Philosophy at the University of Durham. This leads Lowe to reformulate the principles of first-order logic in a way which enables him to capture the logical relationships between statements of natural laws and statements attributing dispositional attributes to objects. Even though modal notions are currently interpreted without the presup position that each genuine possibility should be realized at some moment of the actual history, there are contemporary philosophical models of modalities which incorporate this presupposition.
Lowe suggests that exceptionless natural laws typically apply only to theoretical entities, e. In Chapter 3, Lowe sets forth and defends his account of individuals, sorts, and instantiation. Persons and Their Bodies Matter and Organisms Organisms and Persons Is There a Criterion of Personal Identity? The Syntax and Semantics of Complex Sortal Terms On the Identity of Sorts Bibliography Index Produkty podobne:. Various attempts to resist this way of describing the results of such transformations are examined and found wanting and objections to the possibility of cases of spatiotemporal coincidence are rebutted. He portrays metaphysics as charting the possibilities of existence, by identifying the categories of being and the relations between them. This is a metaphysical study of lasting value and significance.
Olson has argued that those who hold that two material objects can exactly coincide at a moment of time, with one of these objects constituting the other, face an insuperable difficulty in accounting for the alleged differences between the objects, such as their being of different kinds and possessing different persistence-conditions. A mon sens cette position engage à admettre une forme robuste d'essentialisme. Here we have a use of language, a language game, in which modal notions are used so as to imply that if something is possible, it is realized. Lowe attempts to justify this claim by appealing to the example 'Ravens are black'. More Kinds of Being is a remarkable book. Such an argument appeals to some principles of the causal closure of the physical, together with certain other premises, to conclude that at least some mental events are identical with physical events. It is committed, in my opinion, to a robust form of essentialism.