The first section contains 6 surveys on locational analysis, the second, 5 surveys of specific urban markets, and the third part presents 5 surveys of government policy issues. J and J Tirole 1993 10 The author of the present note Probably the regulatory attitude of this government Mr Dinis presidency was related more to its technical than to its political origin a bi-partisan compromise 11 Nucleo di consulenza per lAttuazione e la Regolazione dei Servizi di interesse pubblico 12 Again, the author of this paper was involved in the reform 13 Demsetz, H 1968 14 Adler, M. How will declining economic growth translate to the maritime sector? No transit unit and no customs operations except at the explicit request of clients. For network operators, the Round Table concludes that innovation is the key to surviving the rapidly changing policy and regulatory environment. Dredging activities are an important element of capacity creation and maintenance.
Many of the railway lines in Turkey were originally built by private companies. Part two looks at the working of public enterprises: the state of their financial performance, the peculiarities of pricing, the determination of targets which they should meet, the continuous monitoring and evaluation of their operations. On the other hand, the third analyses some system utilities and privatization reforms; then how competition could improve the business on privatization. There can also be intermodal competition when railways compete with trucking and inland water modes e. Once a container ship reaches port, it becomes a puzzle that is broken up into as many boxes as it contains. The first two such advantages concern mainly the sea leg of transport: port handling efficiency and reduced transport costs per unit carried, made possible by the steady increase in size of container ships. Can the potential customers get very good substitutes from other sources bottleneck has lower shadow price , or do they suffer without or pay much higher prices for much inferior substitutes bottleneck has higher shadow price? Competition authorities need to draw relevant market boundaries increasingly widely.
One of the aspects studied is the relationship between market concentration and profitability Sys, 2007 and 2008. Responsibility: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and International Transport Forum. This is an appropriate time to pull together the lessonsfrom these various experiences. This may in turn result in bottlenecks that are not immediately apparent. However, factors other than transaction costs between train operators and the infrastructure manager account for this escalation.
Rather than engaging in an all-consuming competitive struggle, they prefer to collaborate. Smith, Andrew, Chris Nash and Phil Wheat 2009 , Passenger Rail Franchising in Britain: Has it been a Success? In addition, water-side congestion is generally rated as serious. It is harder to argue in favour of multiple port ownership and control, although ostensible concerns for managing port specialization or national security have caused countries to do so. It determines which approaches are likely to work best and also assesses strategies for managing greenhouse gas emissions including the alternative of high-speed rail. We observe in our survey that when the pre- and post-shipment carriage is carried out mainly by sea via feeder vessels, as in Singapore, the approach of shipping lines remains identical, i. In practice, some pieces of the system tend to be privately owned deep sea shipping and landside trucking , while other pieces port real estate, aids to water navigation and roads are almost always publicly owned. For network operators, the Round Table concludes that innovation is the key to surviving the rapidly changing policy and regulatory environment.
. But this average conceals deep-seated differences between shipping lines. This conclusion highlights the continuing relevance of the core business of shipping lines, i. Perhaps more importantly, without competition, the ports offer an irresistible opportunity to generate monopoly rents that are then transferred to employees or the owning agency, or others, usually with highly opaque accounting. It therefore cautioned against any attempts to introduce network-wide pricing or trackage right rules, preferring instead specific local measures, such as arrangements for sharing congested terminals, to address local service quality and capacity issues.
Other important objectives clearly include explicit social issues such as employment generation, as well as local, regional or national development, sometimes in conflict with other localities, regions or countries. It will also be of great relevance for practitioners and policymakers working in the fields of competition policy and regulatory reform. Intervention is also required to manage the natural tendency towards concentration and market power in the provision of these transport services. A relative decline in market power for the port authorities? The long term aim for a public utility should be to '. Among the issues addressed are the level of indirect taxation and subsidisation implicit in the pricing structures of public enterprises, the links between public enterprise and the public exchequer and the implications of their operations for distributional equity. Optimised management of container fleet through the European Logistic Centre of Rotterdam. The opportunities that containerisation offered would have remained a dead letter had they not coincided with the deep upheavals in economic factors since the 1970s.
The implication is that the competitive strength of seaports has become dependent on a great many variables. . Production is therefore order led. The land-leasing policies of port authorities matter in this respect. At the end of the 1980s, it would be more accurate to say that there was diversification of the major maritime groups, with the underlying objective of potential integration of the transport chain Gugenheim, 1990. The third advantage is that containers are intermodal tools that facilitate door-to-door services. The first, and fundamental, difference between the transport modes is that sea transport is confined to a port-to-port leg only.
Insight is also required into the relationship between developments in the maritime and port industry on the one hand and competitive relationships and market power on the other. Tangier Med Gate: 50% and Eurogate 20% at Eurogate Tanger itself 20% CoMaNav, 40% Baltic Container Contship Italia, 40% Eurogate and 20% Terminal, open 2009 Terminal operating companies Table 2. This reinforces the need for a case by case approach to competition issues rather than systemic regulation of markets susceptible to market power. Not all ports have inland water services. This again gives structural remedies the advantage in terms of cost effectiveness and perhaps suggests competition authorities should have a proactive duty to keep markets under review.