Temperate Deciduous Forest Biome These are high altitude regions about 3000—4000 metres above sea level as in the Himalayas. The survival of mankind is of immense concern in this 21st century and protection of our environment is of vital importance. Fertilizers and pesticides applied to crops are retained by the soil and spread into the environment, namely, water bodies by leaching. According to the Indian economist Nobel Laureate Amartya Sen and Pakistani economist, Mahbub-ul-Haq, in developing countries development goals should be elimination of malnutrition, illiteracy, disease and poverty. During the Maurya period of history emperor Chandra Gupta Maurya and later his grand son Ashoka adopted the policy of Ecosystems 43 tree-plantation.
The concept of carrying capacity, as stated above, implies that only a limited number of people can be supported by the resources of a country. At the time of formation, neon might escape from the atmosphere along with water and volatile matter present in the atmosphere. The lithosphere is subjected to continuous creation and destruction due to tectonic plate interactions giving rise to mountains in some places and depressions in some other places. Carvings on stone pillars from this era show how wild animals were treated with medicine and care. In other words, another earth will have to be accommodated within this earth, which is totally absurd. Comment on the origin and evolution of life. There is continuous exchange of nitrogen within the ecosystems operating the nitrogen cycle.
It was the toughest challenge to handle such environmental disaster. All over the world every year about 6 million hectares of farmland disappear for construction of houses, roads, mines, reservoirs, factories, etc. As a result, Indonesia, Malayasia missed summer in 1991. Such grasslands are found as tall grass prairies, short grass prairies of North America and also in South America, steppes of Southern Russia and Asia. Ray Gold Medal 1981, Calcutta University , Umacharan Banerjee Gold Medal 1979, Calcutta University , Cooper Memorial Medal, H. Tundra, Temperate, Corniferous forest, Grassland, Tropical Savana, etc. In natural ecosystems with unlimited resources and ideal environment, species can multiply at a maximum rate.
A typical soil, suitable for agriculture, contains about 5 per cent organic matter and 95 per cent inorganic matter. Sulphur cycle: Circulation of sulphur and its compounds in the environment: air—soil—plants—animals—soil. Tornado: As a thunderstorm grows in intensity, it leads to tornado. No part of this ebook may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm, xerography, or any other means, or incorporated into any information retrieval system, electronic or mechanical, without the written permission of the publisher. Biogeochemical cycles: There is continuous circulation of chemical elements carbon, oxygen, sulphur, phosphorus, etc.
Continental Drift: The outer mantle of the earth consisting of huge tectonic plates floats on molten mental fluid core of the earth and moves very slowly. Plants draw water and nutrients from soil—they transport water into the plant body roots and leaves and then excess water into the atmosphere through leaves by the process of transpiration. Land and Water Resources of the Earth 5. This Book is useful for Civil Engineering Students. High dependency ratios, as in India, have adverse effect on the economy. Cyclone: Tropical storm in which the wind rotates around a centre of low atmospheric pressure anti-clockwise in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere with wind speed about 100 km. We breathe polluted air, drink polluted water and eat polluted food in our daily lives.
Gupta, Managing Director, New Age International Publishers, New Delhi for encouragement and prompt publication. Comment on human concern about environment. Such change is natural non-anthropogenic but it altered the chemical composition of air which led to other changes in the environment. The entire outer shell of the earth is made up of huge tectonic plates1 which float on the molten fluid core of the earth. The continuous load of pollutants into the environment brought about changes in it which ultimately 8 Environmental Studies backfired into series of disasters from time to time. It is designed to serve the larger sections of the students and teaching community of all over India.
Indian population statistics 1901 1951 238 million 361 million 4. The ecosystem is the functional unit in ecology as it consists of both the biotic community living organisms and abiotic environment. Ground water does not remain static but moves in various directions. They are the treasure house of valuable plant and animal genes and medicinal plants, most of which are yet to be discovered. Geological changes shaped the present lithosphere and hydrosphere. We have to break the vicious P-triangle—Population—Poverty— Pollution on an emergency basis for our own survival. The need of the hour is environmental education and awareness for all so that they learn how to handle environmental issues, how to lead a better life with less pollution and make this earth a better place to live in for the present and future generations.
The reactor exploded as a result of uncontrolled nuclear reactions—radioactive fuel and debris shot up into air like a volcanic explosion and spread out in the surrounding areas. Hurricanes arise from tropical seas when the latter are warmed by the solar heat. May not contain Access Codes or Supplements. And moreover, 1 million women die each year from preventable reproductive health problems. As a result of deforestation, many important plant and animal species have disappeared from earth. How are the forests related to Biodiversity? It is mainly composed of oxygen 21% , nitrogen 78% and traces of carbon dioxide, water vapour, etc. He destroyed forests, degraded lands, threw toxic wastes into rivers and seas and also harmful gases into the atmosphere.
Desert Biome These are found in very dry environment where temperature changes from very hot to very cold. It will also serve the purpose of B. Jamwal holds Postgraduate qualification in Remote Sensing, Botany, Ecology and Environment. It will take several decades for the environment to be recovered. Ecosystem: Any unit that includes all organisms which interact with their physical environment as a whole biotic community is know as Ecosystem. It is the village women who are worst hit by deforestation Population and Environment 57 and devegetation loss of vegetation cover. In doing so, environmental management should work to preserve the maximum evolutionary potential of the biosphere.