A typical neighborhood or petty settlement at Yinxu would be composed of one or more habitation sectors and one or more clusters of graves; and it often contained a relatively large courtyard-style compound, or a group of such compounds that functioned as lineage temples or were used for the residences of lineage chiefs and their families Meng 2003. Sacri ce was one of the de ning features of Shang ritual. Seven bronze yue large at axes, were found in M54, which is rare among the burial nds at Yinxu; one of them is as large as those found in Fu Hao s tomb. Liu , Li , Xingcan Chen , Yunkun Lee , Henry Wright , and Arlene Rosen. There has been a tendency to compress the two centuries of urban develop-ment at Yinxu into a single historical event, viewing late Shang society as if it were monolithic, and thus ignoring the processes through which it was created, developed, and collapsed. In our ongoing investigation in Anyang, there are three domains of speci c questions we will make earnest efforts to study: 1 Population composition and mobility, and the formation of urban identities why, how, and by whom were the cities created? Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 27 1 : 1 29. A Companion To Chinese Archaeology Underhill Anne P can be very useful guide, and a companion to chinese archaeology underhill anne p play an important role in your products.
It had been extensively looted Yue and Yue 2009 , but its presence, along with many small graves and resi-dential foundations nearby, suggest a neighborhood of possibly royal zi -prince status. During the past decade or so, the ascendancy of systematic regional survey in China has focused increasing attention on the interactions of early urban centers with their surrounding landscapes at a regional scale Tang et al. The Institute of Archaeology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences from which the Chinese Academy of Social Sci-ences was split in 1977 established the Anyang work team in 1958, and a permanent work station just west of the village of Xiaotun in 1959. More than 100 foundations of rammed earth were detected, and among other important ndings was a large arti cial pond measuring about 560 m long northsouth, at least 4. Beijing : China Press of Social Science.
For example, enormous new ndings from the 20032004 excavation at Locus Xiaomintun, particularly buildings and pottery vessels of nonlocal style, are unan-ticipated as well as intriguing Wang Xuerong and He 2007. Chinese Archaeology 4 : 1 20. The Rise of the Erlitou Culture Xu Hong 16. Oracle Bones from Xiaotun South. It presents a collection of readings from leading archaeologists in China and elsewhere that provide diverse interpretations about social and economic organization during the Neolithic period and early Bronze Age. The word order syntax involving double-object construction, the modi ca-tion structure, and the use of demonstratives, particles, and vocabularies are much more diverse and complex in the early phases than the later ones, strongly suggesting the presence of different dialects, particularly during the early reigns of the late Shang dynasty. Foreign or nonlocal objects imports or copies and styles are not unusual among the ndings from Yinxu, particularly during the reign of King Wu Ding.
Underhill is Professor in the Department of Anthropology at Yale University, and a Curator in the Anthropology Division at the Yale Peabody Museum. We may speculate that the occupants of both M54 and the royal burial at Chang Zi Kou were from the same lineage group. Like the other archaeology professors, Professor Underhill aims to contribute to the protection of archaeological heritage resources throughout the world. Antiquity, 1 December 2013 Summing Up: Recommended. Seeing Like a State: How Certain Schemes to Improve the Human Condi-tion Have Failed.
In addition, as many as 93 looters pits were found within the site limits placed mostly on graves, clearly indicative of the severity of tomb-looting and site destruction at Yinxu. Preliminary Report of the Regional Archaeological Survey in the Huan river Valley. Archaeological and epigraphic data suggest that these zi prince line-ages resided within the so-called palace-temple district see the discussion later and had their own neighborhoods where they lived their lives and buried their dead. Published 2013 by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. A Companion To Chinese Archaeology Underhill Anne P can be very useful guide, and a companion to chinese archaeology underhill anne p play an important role in your products. The divinations performed by the Shang kings refer to numerous lineages or lineage groups. Jing , Zhichun , Tang Jigen , He Yuling , and Xu Guangde.
In other words, late Shang was a society that incorporated varieties of speech different from the court diviners of King Wu Ding. These early excavations unearthed impressive founda-tions of pounded earth, enormously richly furnished royal tombs, shocking human and animal sacri ces, copious inscribed bones and shell, and a splendid bronze casting industry. The excavations have exposed southeast and northwest portions of the elevated platform. The lineages of zi princes were composed of all those royal descendants who had created their own collateral minor lineages duozizu , many princely lineages Keightley 1999 ; Zhu 2004. New Discoveries and Related Issues in the Archaeology of Xiaomintun at Yinxu. And many more continue to be found as a new ground is subject to excavation Figure 17. Antiquity, 1 December 2013 Summing Up: Recommended.
Cambridge : Harvard University Press. In terms of the processes of urban planning and development, Huanbei was created largely through top-down processes, while Yinxu was seemingly much more self-organized bottom-up local processes. Myths of the Archaic State: Evolution of the Earliest Cities, States, and Civiliza-tions. Production of Ground Stone Tools at Taosi and Huizui: A Comparison Li Liu, Zhai Shaodong and Chen Xingcan 15. The Jiahu Site and Culture Zhang Juzhong and Cui Qilong 11. Death was viewed as continuity of life rather than a new beginning; it provided an effective opportunity for survivors to validate the central values of the elite culture. The unexpected discovery of Huanbei has encouraged us to reassess traditional models of the Shang civilization and to seek new ways toward interpreting and understanding the identity and meaning of Huanbei and Yinxu, including the social and population dynamics, and the earliest cities of China s early Bronze Age.
In The Great Bronze Age of China , ed. Compound F2 is very likely just part of a complete courtyard complex that is oriented 13. Understanding Hongshan Period Social Dynamics Christian Peterson and Lu Xueming 5. The foundation trench of the south wall is lled only with poorly rammed earth or simply non-pounded soil. Such a de nition emphasizes social interactions integral to struc-turing and sustaining a neighborhood.
The development of the Erlitou culture has been traced mainly through excavations at the Erlitou capital. Only 27 m north of F1 is compound F2 with a similar structure and orientation. Later, this habitation area was converted to a cemetery. The Kuahuqiao Site and Culture Jiang Leping 27. The core of the palace-temple district is bordered by a large water feature in the northwest, and surrounded in the south and west by royal neighborhoods where members of zi -prince lineages, as well as their servants, lived and were buried together. The east end of the rectangular enclosure is determined only by probing because it extends into the airport eld where no excavation is allowed.